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INFECTIONS DISEASES IN CHILDREN


It is less encountered with infectious diseases due to vaccination of the children when compared with the past. Vaccine is the most effective method in the children against infectious diseases.   

Measles
It is usually seen in the winter and spring seasons. Its factor is measles virus. For the purposes of protection against measles, measles vaccine should be made to each child on timely manner. Measles, which causes red rash, fever and cough in the body, is very infectious disease.  Doctor check is a must at all times for diagnosis. Its incubation period is 8-12 days. Infection lasts 2 days before rash starts and until 4 days after rash on the body. It is infected by way of droplets. Before rash for a period of 1-2 days prior to rash, fever, runny nose, watery eyes and dry cough can be seen and sometimes diarrhea can be present. Small white spots occur in the inner parts of the cheeks inside the mouth. Effectiveness of the disease lasts for a period of 1 week. The child should be closely monitored during disease time and its fever should be taken under control and the child should rest and should consume plenty of fluids and should feed gradually. 

Rubella
It is usually seen in the winter and spring seasons. Vaccine is of high importance for protection. It has no treatment. Once it is undergone, immunity is acquired. Its factor is Rubella virus. It is transmitted directly or via droplet. Incubation period is 14-21 days. Infection period is 1 week before start of rashes and 1 week after rashes. Mild fever and swollen lymph nodes may be seen. It starts with pink-coloured rash and spreads to entire body. This case lasts for 4-5 days. 

Scarlet Fever
It is an infectious disease causing rash on the skin of the body and leading to very important complications such as lomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Characterized by coughing, sneezing and droplet infection, scarlet fever disease is especially common in school-age children. Its incubation period is 2-5 days. After it has been transmitted, fever, sore throat,, nausea and vomiting are the symptoms. Within 1-2 days following this case, red sports and lines occur on the skin. Skin findings called "red rash" causes peeling in hands and fingers. Strawberry appearance of tongue, white spots on the tonsils and covering with inflammation are the common symptoms of the disease. Infection occurs with direct contact with infected person.

Chickenpox
It is usually seen in the winter and spring seasons. This is the only disease that can be protected with vaccine. For this reason, vaccination schedule should be adhered to at all times. Virus may transform into shingles in older ages. It is transmitted through droplets from the air. Its incubation period is 14-16 days. After infection of microbe, the first symptoms are mild fever, fatigue, lack of appetite and itching. Starting from especially face and scalp within 1-2 days, it is firstly in red spot form and then juicy red bubbles in the middle turning into pimples appear and spread to entire body. These crust starts after approximately 8 hours. Rashes generally last for 5-20 days. The child should be kept under control during the disease and room of the child should be frequently ventilated. 

Mumps
This is a viral infection causing swelling in salivary glands. The children especially without vaccine between 2-12 years of age are under risk. For this reason, vaccine is of utmost importance as a protector. Even if it is seen in the children, adult persons may also undergo this disease. Its factor is mumps virus. Its incubation period is 2-3 weeks. It generally starts with fever, loss of appetite, weakness and swelling occurs below ear on the cheek with swelling of salivary gland. The child has pain in the jaw, difficulty in swallowing and mouth dryness.  It can be transmitted with intimate contact with the patient, respiratory ways and using the same cups, forks and spoon.  Infectious period, as of the inception of 1 day before swelling, continues for a period of 9 days. 2-3 weeks after contact with the patient, the symptoms begin in the person having taken the microbe. The child should be kept under control during the disease and room of the child should be frequently ventilated. 

Pertussis
It is very infectious disease. It is infected by way of droplets. Its incubation period is 7-10 days. Onset period of the disease is the period in which contagion is at the greatest. Contagion period lasts for 30-40 days more. Immunity provided by vaccine lasts for 5-7 years. For this reason, once protection comes to an end, it would be useful to be vaccinated again. Firstly, dry cough and mild fever are seen. Coughing crisis in seizure forms within 1-2 weeks, redness on the skin during coughing, bruising and perspiration may occur. In very young infants, it may cause stopping of breathing. After coughing, phlegm is generally taken out by vomiting. Doctor check is a must at all times. Babies may need to be kept under supervision in the hospital. 

5th Disease 
The factor in the fifth disease is parvo virus. It is an exanthematous disease. It is generally seen between the children with 5-15 years of age. This can be seen in adults not having encountered this virus before in contact with the children. Its incubation period is 4-14 days. At first, rare joint pains and mild fever may occur. The first finding is so intense redness. Then, redness and rash are seen on the arms and legs. Rash gets lost within 3 weeks and may occur again. It has no vaccine and treatment.

6th Disease 
The factor in the sixth disease is herpes virus. It is an exanthematous disease.  It is often seen in infants with 3-18 months. Its incubation period is 5-15 days. The first findings are high fever, restlessness and loss of appetite. When antipyretic is taken, it is witnessed that the baby is more pleased. The period with high fever may last for 3-4 days. Then, suddenly, fever disappears and red rash especially on the body, neck and arms may be seen.     When rash starts, the baby has no disease symptom.   It does not lead to any complications in the children with normal immune system. Rash disappears within 1-2 days.