Structure Of Skin
Microbial Skin Diseases
Allergic Skin Diseases
Occupational Skin Diseases
Being Protected From Sunlight
• Prof. Şebnem ÖZKAN, MD
• Hacer ÖNVURAL, MD
• M.Cüneyt SOYAL, MD
• Arzu GÖRGÜLÜ ERASLAN, MD
• Ergün KUŞKU, MD
• Sinem KARACA, MD
A healthy nail is shiny, of smooth surface, flexible and resistant to external factors. Different diseases in the body, physical factors, drugs, diseases directly holding the nails may cause disorders in nails. These disorders in nails both create aesthetic defect and impairs the functions of the nails.
Breaking In Nails
Environmental factors such as permanent wet state of nails, constant contact with chemicals such as acetone, frequent manicure as well as fungi, thyroid disease, vitamin deficiencies, anaemia, eczema and psoriasis on the skin around the nails may lead to breaking and deformation in the nails.
Discolouration In Nails
Discolouration of the nails is of critical importance and can be considered as a sign of a disease. The most common colour change is whitening. Reason of whitening damages in manicure, fungal diseases, some drugs or chemical substances and vitamin deficiencies. Yellowing may be related to some fungal diseases, some drugs r some dyes settled in the nails. Orangey colour is mostly seen in psoriasis disease. Yellowing and darkening are generally seen in the nails of smokers. Brown darkening in the nails generally occurs in thickening state. In case of these colours without thickening, fungal diseases and bacteria formation may be in question. If there are dark red or black sports on the nails, subungual bleeding should be examined. In the meantime, this can be a sign of "melanoma" type cancer. For this reason, colour changes on the nails should be cared and it should be consulted to the doctor.
Characterized by thickening and yellow-brown discolouration on the nail plate, nail fungus may appear on both hand and toe fingers. Structural changes in the toes, constantly remaining damp, excessive sweating, narrow shoes facilitate formation of nail fungus. Nail fungus treatment is a long-term treatment. This should be treated with special polishes applied on the nail and oral fungus medications. Oral drugs should be used for a period of 3-4 months. Recently, we have been using laser method in nail fungus treatment. Laser treatment is conducted in total 4 sessions as 1 session in a week.
Thickening On The Nails
This is the most common type of deformation. Nail becomes easily shatterable together with thickening. This is generally caused by fungus diseases. If thickening is on the toes, it may even aggravate wearing shoes and cause pain. Once psoriasis settles on the nails, it may lead to thickening reminiscent of a fungus disease. Some hereditary disorders exposure of nails to chemical substances such as manual washing and washing the dishes may lead to gap formation and nail thickening on the nails.
Panaris (Inflammation Around The Nail)
This is a microbial disease is caused to inflammation around the nails by bacteria called "streptococcus" Breaking nail flesh, damaging in manicure, housework, frequent wetting and drying are the factors triggering formation of panaris. Firstly, redness, swelling and abscess occur. Abscess should be opened and discharged and antibiotic drug should be administered around the nail.
Ingrown nail occurs as a result of using narrow and pointy shoes, cutting the nails very short and incorrect pedicure applications. Side edges of the nails penetrate into the skin and redness and bulging occurs around the ingrown toenail. It may lead to infections. If there is active infection prior to treatment of ingrown toenail, firstly, infection should be treated. If there is a slight ingrown toenail, relaxation is ensured by using gauze and write for separating the nail from ingrown part. However, if ingrown state degree is more than this and frequent swelling occurs around the nail, it should treated by removing the ingrown part of the nail. What matters in the ingrown toenail problem is that the nail should be cut off accurately.