Pre - Pregnancy
Pregnancy And Pregnancy Care
Development Of Pregnancy By Months
Time To Go To Hospital For Delivery
Risk Of Pre-Term Delivery
Nutrition In Pregnancy
Exercises And Yoga In Pregnancy
Being A Baby - Friendly Hospital
Mother Class Program
Surgical Procedures In Mother's Womb
• Prof. Namık DEMİR, MD
• Mehmet Tunç CANDA, MD
• Orçun SEZER, MD
• Nihal DANAOĞLU, MD
• Şebnem ALTUNYURT, MD
DEVELOPMENT OF PREGNANCY BY MONTHS
Changes by the months
The first sign of pregnancy is the delay of menstruation. Final diagnosis of the pregnancy can be established by blood and urinary tests. After the pregnancy is finalized, sac of the baby should be imaged with the examination.
In the first pregnancy examination;
• Risk factors of the baby and pregnancy are assessed. Genetic history of parents is examined.
• Estimated delivery date is calculated.
• Total blood analysis, total urinalysis is requested. Moreover, screening of previous diseases to affect immunity may be screened and blood incompatibility is determined.
• Pregnancy is evaluated for the mother and baby and days for routine controls are determined.
• In the first month of pregnancy, embryo starts to be fed by placenta from the mother and it is about 1 mm. The pregnant should give up smoking and alcohol in addition to caring for nutritional order, vitamins and exercises.
As of month 1 during the pregnancy;
• If bleeding occurs,
• In case of intense vomiting
• If it is thought that the baby doesn’t move for more than 24 mpnths,
• If the fever is above 38°C
• If the pregnant fell down or in case of stomach impact
You must consult the physician.
Week 5 is the most significant week when the pregnancy is discovered. Nausea generally starts as of this week. Location of organs begins to appear in week 6. The head is bigger than the body and seems like a tadpole in the first months. In the baby blood circulation of whom doesn’t start has non-rhythmic heart beats. After heart development ends, the baby that blood will be pumped in the body is about 4-5 mm in week 6 and is average 1,5 gram in weight. Arms, legs, mouth and face lines of the baby head of whom is bigger than the body begin to become clear. It is generally 2 grams in weight and 13 mm in height. Palate starts to form in the mouth in week 8. The recent progress is that lung starts to form. Nausea and vomiting is in progress for the mother generally.
It is the last month of trimester 1 in the pregnancy. Differences like vomiting, nausea, chest tightness, headache, tiredness, increase of urination, sleeplessness and nightmare are observed due to increased hormones in the pregnancy (estrogen, progesterone). These problems finish in the end of this period. Uterus remains the pelvic structure till the week 12 and presses urinary bladder due to expansion and for this reason mother has to urinate frequently. In the end of month 3, uterus goes out of the pelvis and this pressure reduces and frequency of urination becomes normal.
Body of the baby begins to take form in week 9. Hand, foot, fingers and nails, digestive system and internal genital organs start to develop. Baby starts to move slightly. Vital organs of the baby develop in week 10. Finger separation and development of nails take long a bit. Teeth develop as the skeleton develops. Eye hole forms however eyes are closed. Brain development is in progress. If the baby is male, testicle starts to produce testosterone and external genital organs start to develop. Growth of organ is very fast in week 11. Ears develop in both sides of head and external genital organs take shape. In week 13, changes occur in the face due to chin and nose development. Hand and toes development finishes.
Due to weight of baby, placenta tissue, amniotic fluid, increase of blood volume of the mother, liquid accumulation in body tissues, uterus and breast growth, the mother gains about 1 kg till week 12. The actual weight gain occurs in the second half of the pregnancy.
Risks in the first period for mother and baby ends with month 4 and vomiting, nausea and tiredness end and adaptation to pregnancy is achieved.
In this month, baby is about 16 cm in height and about 85 g in weight. Movements of the baby can be felt. Urination of the baby starts. Sex is understood in 16-week babies. Now sex of baby can be known by the ultrasound. Brain parts of the baby develop and first hair forms. Hair and nails get longer. Eyes are closed and eyelids protect eye.
Heart of baby continues to grow and can be listened by stetescope. The baby is very active in this month and kick can be felt. Thin hair is seen on the head and vernix coseosa (white oily substance in crème covering fetus skin) covers the skin. Skin becomes thick and subcutaneous fat is less and for this reason the skin is wrinkled. Fingerprints and nails are clear. It starts to suck fingers and feet. Weight gain is fast and it is about 30 cm in height and 650 g in weight in the end of month 5.
Body temperature of the mother increases due to activity of thyroid gland. For this reason, sweating and hot flush become frequent. Moreover, leg pain may be experienced as the blood volume increases. Such complaints end by resting.
In this month, baby gains weight fast and development continues. Eyebrow develops and hair grows. Bones and muscles develop and body lines become clear. Eyes can perceive the light. Lung has developed completely. Ears develop and the baby can hear heart beat of mother easily. Heart sound of the mother becomes a relaxing rhytm for the baby. The baby being able to hear the external high sounds can’t hear deep voice in this month because ear bones have the form to perceive only high sounds in the end of this month. The baby is about 32 cm in height and 800-900 g in weight in the end of month 6.
Womb of the mother enlarges. For this reason, back and leg pains may be experienced. The mother may have difficulty in moving. The mother should rest within the day.
It is the beginning of the last trimester. Brain of the baby has developed quietly and now it is in the form of brain of an adult. Brain being flat begins to become clear with convolution. Sucking the finger is the regular activities. It is accepted as preparation for sucking. On the other hand, finger sucking strengthens chin muscles. Development of lung and liver continues. Immunity system is still formed. Color of baby is close to red. Subcutaneous fat layers of the baby immunity system of whom has developed continue to get plump. Lungs are ready for oxygen exchange. Blood is produced by spinal cord like the adults. Emotions and senses of the baby develop in this month. It tastes amniotic fluid while drinking. Eyes are closed and light can be felt. Body gets plump and now wrinkled look ends with subcutaneous fat layer. Stomach and intestine works. The baby is average 1,5 kg in weight and 38 in height in the end of this month.
Since the baby is growing, uterus is narrow and the baby gains the form in the mother’s womb as the legs are bent. Bone development becomes fast in this month and baby starts to blink its eyes. Sense organs develop quite. It is sensitive to the sounds. The baby starts to stay at upside down position mostly. Height is generally 42 cm and weight is about 1600 grams. Weak hair falls off and new permanent hair grows. Immunity system becomes active in week 35. Since lungs have developed, baby can control reflexes. As the head goes downwards, birth canals open.
Joints of the mother may relax due to relaxing hormone and tiredness may increase. Because of changed hormone balance in the skin flaky drying may be observed. Ejaculating toxic substance in the body becomes difficult due to overload on the skin. Uterus starts to get ready for the delivery and twinging may sometimes occur.
Now there are a few days for the delivery. The baby starts go down from the pelvis and birth is about to happening. Physiological functions of the baby are normal, all organs have developed and are ready for functioning including lung. Features become quite clear. Kidneys and liver have developed and growth rate of brain increases and nape becomes clear more. The baby is in downward position being the position of birth.
The moment of birth comes as of week 40. Deliveries from week 37 to week 41 are normal deliveries. Waiting for normal delivery is good. If the delivery hasn’t started and time has ended, delivery can be performed by induction. The doctor will inform the mother and father about the most correct method about delivery.