Brain Health And Brain Diseases
• Prof. Altay BEDÜK, MD
• Prof. Kemal YÜCESOY, MD
• Göktuğ AKYOLDAŞ, MD
BRAIN HEALTH AND BRAIN DISEASES
Brain comprises of three layers. The top layer (cortex) the center of intellect and thinking is very developed in human. Moreover, knowledge about environment and body is transferred and solved here. Conscious behaviours and actions arise from here (like words and actions).
Mid layer (basis of brain) is the center of instinctive behaviours (love, hatred, jealousy, ownership feeling, etc.). Similarly, memories, pains, control center and hormonal secretions occur here. It undertakes waking up, muscle force and balance (with cerebellum).
There are centers in the medulla constituting the bottom layer regulating breathing, digestion, etc. All ascending and descending nerve tracks pass here.
This three-layer “super computer” is controlled by the forebrain for every action related to the intellect and conscious. This control zone is very sensitive. The more brain center is damaged, the more the lower levels fail and have difficulty in maintaining vital regulations.
If medulla centers are damaged, the person to help and physician should undertake the most significant vital functions while expecting recovery.
Brain, Nerve and Vascular Diseases
If coma, agitation and seizures, clonus crisis are seen in a health person, it will be considered as the sign of a brain disorder. These symptoms may be seen in many diseases or serious traumas. Some medicines and drugs have the same effect. High dose medicine accidentally or using consciously will result in a dangerous situation.
Hemorrhage and Acute Brain Diseases
Hemorrhage occurring as a result of fracture of a vein in skull may lead to congestion compressing the brain. Congestion or fracture of a brain vein results in a failure in the brain. It is followed by stroke of half of the body or tongue tie. Brain infections (abscess, meningitis, intracranial inflammation) begins suddenly with one of these signs. Some tumors may create these effects even if they are benign.
Medications and Hypoxia
Some medications have special direct or indirect effects on the brain. If used in correct doses, they will yield therapeutic results. However, overdoses may lead to brain failure. Drug addiction and alcohol consumption may make the person have coma and result in seizure and convulsion seizure. Nerve cell of brain is very sensitive to hypoxia. Any kinds of respiration and blood circulation disorders develop disease symptom fast.
Decrease Of Glucose In Blood
Nerve cell is very sensitive to the glucose deficiency playing a significant role in feeding. It has no reserve and is dependent on glucose provided by blood circulation completely. Rate of glucose is preserved by the insulin a hormone of pancreas. Insulin secretion is not sufficient in diabetes. Treatment aims to provide insulin to the patient with injection. So, daily requirement is met. If dose of insulin is very high or sugar intake is very poor compared to insulin dosing, glucose rate in the blood will decrease. It is called as hypoglycemia. It may result in brain damage. Severe glucose deficiency complications may be seen in alcohol abusers. For this reason, the risk of brain and nerve damage of alcohol abusers or person consuming alcohol as he seeps is high.
Cold and Heat
The brain is like a computer. Like all computers, brain is sensitive to cold and heat (heat stroke, sunstroke, high temperature, etc.). especially infants and children below 2 years old are very sensitive to high fever. For this reason, never allow temperature be above 40°C in children. Delirium, trance and agitated depression may occur with high fever and it may be followed by serious brain damage.