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Böbrek Taşı (renal calculi)
It is calculi in urinary tracts. Advanced methods for treatment of renal calculi were developed. Calculi can be broken inside or outside the body and treated by laser or closed (percutaneous, laparoscopic) operations.

Nefrit (Nephrite) 
It is the non-microbic inflammatory disease of kidney. Part should be excised from kidney for final diagnosis in other words, kidney biopsy should be applied. It is classified into two groups as glomerulonephrite or interstitial nephrite by the retention region.

Böbrek Kistleri (Kidney cysts) 
It is fluid-filled sac in kidney. Some of them are harmful and some of them, not. Kidney may be 4-5 kilogram and enlarge in some hereditary cystic diseases.  

Böbrek Tümörleri (Kidney tumors) 
They are malign and benign tumors in the kidney. They may result in renal failure even if rarely. 

Hipertansiyon (Hypertension) 
Hypertension may lead to renal failure and also kidney diseases may lead to hypertension. For this reason, every hypertension patient should be examined for kidney disease and necessary actions should be taken. Since hypertension (high blood pressure) is a disease affecting the veins, it targets heart and brain and also kidneys. If blood pressure is not controlled, hypertension will accelerate progress of kidney disease. In some of kidney diseases (Especially nephrite) the most frequent first symptom is hypertension. In the cases that kidneys are damaged by calculi and inflammation, hypertension may occur again. As a conclusion, kidneys may be the cause and also victim of hypertension. 

Akut Piyelonefrit (Acute pyelonephritis) 
It is the microbic inflammatory disease of the kidney. It is called as upper urinary tract infection. It is an infectious and inflammatory disease in kidney pelvis and parenchyma. Kidney is big and edematic. Acute pyelonephritis is observed in women more. Urinary system disorders, pregnancy, pain killer habits and foreign matters in urinary system (catheter, stent, etc.) may lead to this disease.  

Amiloidoz (Amyloidosis) 
It is the accumulation of starch-like agent in the different organs including kidneys for various reasons. 

Böbrek Atardamarında Daralma (Kidney artery constriction)
It is the constriction and occlusion of arteries feeding the kidney. As a result of it, hypertension and renal failure may occur.