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Breasts are integral part of female body in terms of both aesthetic and functional point of view. Development of breasts last up to 18-19 years of age by starting with puberty. In following years, changes continue in breasts together with ageing of body, pregnancy and giving births and putting on and losing weight. As a result of generally genetic reasons and more rarely some diseases, breasts may be less developed or bigger than normal. Breast surgery covers breast augmentation, breast reduction and breast lift interventions. 

Breast Augmentation 
Breasts may be structurally small for various reasons. One of them may be smaller or asymmetric or may never be congenitally. In case of size difference between two breasts (asymmetry), breast augmentation surgery is performed for making both breasts in equal sizes or increasing its volume. 

Breast augmentation can be applied to the women over the age of 18 completing development of breasts. As with all surgeries, it should be no obstacle of health problem for surgery of a person. 

Generally silicone based breast prostheses (implant) are used for restoring breasts to desired size. Silicone prostheses may be in different types as to the properties of outer capsules and their sizes and contents. What type of prosthesis is to be used is determined by considering examination findings and expectations of a person. If the patient to whom prosthesis will be placed is over 40 years of age, radiological examinations are conducted called mammography and ultrasonography, if necessary, before surgery. Each surgery has its own general or specific risks. Edema and pain after surgery are complaints after surgery. Bleeding and infection depending on surgery are rarely encountered cases.

After type of prosthesis is determined, breast is augmented by placing prosthesis inserted from breast lower curve area, nipple perimeter or arm pit to breast tissue or pectoral muscle. If sagging is in question in breasts and if it cannot be fixed with prosthesis alone, breast lifting procedure can be applied at the same time. 

By removing fat tissue from a person, augmentation of breasts can be partially ensured. However, fat filling is not a permanent method. Main substance in breast prosthesis is silicone located at outer surface of prosthesis. 

Overview of Surgery

 • Applied Surgical Intervention: Beautification of sizes and shapes of their breasts with breast prosthesis in various types.
 • Duration of surgery: 45 minutes -2 hours
 • Anesthesia conditions: General anesthesia
 • Hospital stay: Generally no needed, 0-1 day
 • Possible discomforts: Temporary discomfort, swelling, temporary decrease in sensation of nipple Touch-tenderness in breasts for a couple of weeks
 • Possible Risks: Formation of a hard case around prosthesis inside breast (capsular contracture), general surgical risks such as bleeding and infection, increase or decrease in tenderness of nipple, necessity of a radiologist experienced in its field in the following mammography housing.

Recovery period:

 • Back to work: 1-3 days
 • Physical contact in breasts: 2-3 weeks (athlete bras without underwired feature are used)
 • Fading of scars: 2-4 Months 

Breast Reduction  
Enlarged breasts not compatible with body sizes may occur as a result of genetic factors, hormonal changes or some diseases. Existing problem may even get worse with the effects of weight changes, breastfeeding and gravity. Aesthetic breast reduction surgery is reconstructive surgery. Larger breasts more than usual may lead to some discomforts in women. It may lead to back and neck pain and kyphosis in women. Numbness may occur due to pressure of bra towards arm nerves. Difficulty may arise in breathing. Daily physical activity can be restricted. It may lead to psychological problems in women. A surgery to be applied for the purpose of breast reduction gives a natural appearance to the breasts and facilitates life of a person. 

In breast reduction surgery, excess skin, fat tissue and breast tissue are removed and breast is lifted and natural fullness look is gained. In aesthetic breast reduction surgery, larger breast tissue is re-shaped according to body size of a person. Excess breast tissue and skin over it are removed. Nipple of breast is moved to where it should be. Surgery is performed in an operating theatre under hospital conditions with anesthesia. Surgery lasts 2.5 - 4 hours. Whichever method is implemented, small scar remains around nipple. 

Overview of Surgery

 • Surgical Intervention Performed: Removing a little excess breast and fat tissue from inside of skin and breast from breast lower part, lifting and re-shaping sagging breasts and nipples.
 • Duration of surgery: 3-4 hours
 • Anesthesia conditions: General anesthesia
 • Hospital stay: 1 day
 • Possible discomforts: Temporary purpleness, swelling, insensitivity on skin, temporary dryness, surgery scars
 • Possible Risks: Clarification of scars, infection, skin damages, asymmetry of nipples, numbness on skin.
 • Recovery period: After surgery, bandage and bra are used until recovery is completed on suture areas.
 • Back to work: 2 weeks, 
 • Heavy exercise: 6 weeks
 • Fading of scars: A few months- 1 Year 

Breast Reduction In Men (Gynecomastia) 
"Gynecomastia" is enlarged breasts in men. 85 % of this does not depend on another disease in puberty period and it may occur due to use of other endocrine-hormonal drugs or drug use. 

Gynecomastia during puberty usually regresses spontaneously; however, some can be permanent. Enlarged breast tissue especially may cause psychological, social and physical problems in this period. (hump back posture, change in clothing selection etc.) Gynecomastia is critical in terms of assessment of patients regarding its potential causes when deemed necessary and surgical treatment, eliminating existing or potential physical-psychological problems.

There may be two types of pathology in gynecomastia. In the first type, the reason why breast is enlarged may depend on fat tissue on that area. In such cases, the problem can be solved by liposuction method. In the second type, this may depend on excess breast tissue. In such patients, excess breast tissue is surgically removed. The result obtained with surgery is permanent and generally repeated enlargement does not occur.

Overview of Surgery
 • Applied Surgical Intervention: Removing enlarged breast tissue by accessing from nipple end or removing fats with liposuction.
 • Duration of surgery: 1-2 hours
 • Anesthesia conditions: General Anesthesia or local anesthesia supported with sedation
 • Hospital stay: No need to stay in hospital
 • Possible discomforts: Temporary purpleness, swelling, insensitivity on skin, surgery scars
 • Risks: Clarification of scars, infection, skin damages, asymmetry of nipples, numbness on skin.
 • Recovery period:  After surgery, bandage is used until recovery is completed on suture areas.
 • Back to work: 2 weeks 
 • Heavy exercise: 6 weeks
 • Fading of scars: 3-6 Months

Breast Lift (Mastopexy)
Bonds that hold the breast tissue in place may become loose over time. Inconsistency between may occur between skin envelope wrapped with breast tissue depending on weight change, breastfeeding and gravity effect. This is mostly seen in women with full-breasted women and sometimes it may be encountered in persons with normal breast size. 

While excess breast tissue is taken in breast reduction surgery, sagging in breast can be planned in a way to fix the sagging. In women with normal breast size but with presence of sagging, breast tissue is not removed, only excess is removed and nipple is taken to its normal place and fixing procedure is performed. In case of deficiency of existing breast tissue, it may be needed to place prosthesis inside breast while sagging is being fixed. 

Overview of Surgery

 • Applied Surgical Intervention: Lifting and re-shaping sagging breasts and nipples
 • Duration of surgery: 2-3 hours
 • Anesthesia conditions: General Anesthesia, local anesthesia under sedation in very restricted interventions
 • Hospital stay: Generally 1 day, there is no stay in small interventions.
 • Possible discomforts: Temporary purpleness, swelling, insensitivity on skin, temporary dryness, surgery scars
 • Possible Risks: Clarification of scars, infection, skin damages, asymmetry of nipples, numbness on skin.
 • Recovery period: After surgery, bandage and bra are used until recovery is completed on suture areas.
 • Back to work: 1-2 weeks 
 • Heavy exercise: 1 month
 • Fading of scars: 3-6 Months