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Asthma is a disease showing itself with the stenosis of airway and in attacks. There is non-microbic inflammation in the airways in case of asthma. For this reason, air way wall is lump and edematous. It results in over sensitive of lungs to stimulants. The patient supposes that he has difficulty in breathing in the event of a crisis in fact he has difficulty in exhaling. The reason is the stenosis of small air ducts. The air through it sounds like whistle and it is called as wheezing.

The main reason of asthma is the structure of the person. Some people are sensitive to dust, hair, egg, milk, aspirin, pollen, etc. This sensitivity shows itself as the asthma crises. The first thing for treatment is to eliminate these factors to affect the patient. Over excitement or fear may result in asthma crisis. In such cases, firstly the patient should be made calm. In some persons, asthma crisis can be seen as a result of “Had bronchitis”. Heart failure may lead to asthma crisis.

It is a disease due to affecting of body by some materials or weather conditions or psychological factors. The first thing to do is to find the factor causing the allergy. Symptoms of allergy may vary by the person. It is sometimes itching, urticaria, asthma. If the patient is allergic due to contact with some substances, the removal of that substance will be the absolute solution.

Singultus (Hiccup Singultus) 
It occurs as a result of stimulation of respiratory muscles and especially diaphragm. It is called as “singultus” in medicine language. It may occur for many reasons. Simple hiccup may generally arise from flatulence, consuming hot and spicy food or stress. Moreover, it may be seen in some cardiac, liver, intestine and pancreas diseases, pleurisy or pneumonia. You should apply to the physician in the event of singultus lasting for longer than 3 hours.

It is the couching emerging as a symptom of a disease of chest, throat or abdominal cavity mostly. It is grouped in 3 categories:

Dry cough: Coughs arising from flue, throat inflammation, tonsillitis, excessive smoking, digestion disorders, gastritis, diarrhea, constipation, flatworm, cardiac diseases and vocal cord disorder are non-productive coughs in other words dry cough. 

Paroxysmal cough: It arises from whoop cough or lung distention, throat or air duct irritation or asthma. A little phlegm may be seen. 

Phlegm cough: It may be a symptom of bronchitis, asthma, sinus inflammation, chronic sinusitis, cardiac diseases or tuberculosis. It frequently relapses. The patient has wheezing, he produces sputum and has difficulty in exhaling. 

Couching should not be ignored in any ways and the reason should be investigated and treated.

Dispne (Difficulty in breathing dyspnea) 
Difficulty in breathing called as “dyspnea” in medical language can be a symptom of a significant symptom. Difficulty in breathing after doing exercise, running or a tiring work can be considered as normal. However, complaining about dyspnea without any reasons is a subject required to be pointed. Anemia, cardiac diseases, stomach diseases, bronchitis, thyroid gland enlargement, lung diseases, pneumonia, asthma, poisoning, obesity may result in dyspnea. Person complaining about dyspena must quit smoking and leave heavy food.

It is called as the “lung inflammation” and “pneumonia”. It has 3 types:

Lobar Pneumonia:  It is the acute lung inflammation caused by the germs called pneumococcus. Contaminated dusts, over tiring, cold or exposing to sun for a long time set ground for the disease. The disease starts with sudden headache, trembling, vomiting and back ache. The fever rises to 40 degrees and starts to falls 10 days later. Cough is short-term. Phlegm is bloody and adhesive. Face of patient is red, surrounding of the lips is swelled, skin is dry and tongue is     rusty. He may have attacks at nights. 

Virus pneumonia: It is a pneumonia caused by the viruses. It occurs suddenly or in the end of cold. It is milder than lobar pneumonia. The fever of patient rises up to 39 degrees. He feels himself really tired. Cough is dry and with less phlegm. He has arm and leg pain. 

Bronchopneumonia: It is a disease occurring after non-treated flu, pertussis, bronchitis or measles. The reason of it partly inflammation of lung and bronchus. The disease begins like bronchitis and if action is not taken, it will become sever within 2-3 days. While the temperature is 38 degrees in the morning, it rises up to 40 degrees in the evenings. The patient has coughing, purulent and sometimes bloody phlegm. He is tired, has difficulty in breathing and is pale. Physician treatment is compulsory. On the other hand, the patient is made rest and his morale is boosted. Visitor is not accepted. Hot water bottle is put in the area with pain. He is made to breath hot water steam. When the temperature is high, his body will be wiped with damp cloth. Antipyretic is not given.

COPD- chronic obstructive lung disease 
COPD (chronic obstructive lung disease) is a chronic disease leading to congestion in bronchus. It is treatable lung disease and progressive disease not reversible but it can be prevented. 

COPD constricts airway, makes breathing difficult. Patients have varying symptoms in COPD developing in the grounds of chronic bronchitis and emphysema generally from couching, phglem to difficulty in breathing while walking at short distance.

The most significant reason of the disease is smoking addiction. In addition to this, occupational harmful gases, particles (micro particle) breathing and air pollution are other risk factors. 

Expectorating (Hemoptysis)
Expectorating known as hemoptysis in medical language is the precursor of a significant disease. Lung cancer, tuberculosis, bronchitis, mitral stenosis or pneumonia is doubted. However, it may an insignificant case like gingival bleeding. For this reason, a pillow is placed behind the back of patient and he is made sat. He should apply to the physician as soon as possible. 

It a disease occurring as a result of inflammation of pleura. It is called as pleurisy. The reason is pneumonia, tuberculosis or inflammation from lung abscess. Treatment should be initiated as soon as possible. 

Lung white plague is known as tuberculosis and phthisis. The reason is the tuberculosis bacillus called as koch bacilli. The tuberculosis germ can penetrate in the body by various routes. The primary route is the respiratory tracts. The disease is infected by the phlegm of a tuberculosis patient or milk of tuberculosis cow. Non-observing health conditions, overfatigue, sadness, flu, pertussis, measles or diabetes make the body lose resistance and results in increase of possibility of disease. 

Tuberculosis progresses in three stages:

Stage one The patient has general fatigue, loss of appetite, back ache, couching and temperature up to 38 degrees. The tuberculosis bacillus comes into existence in the inflammatory regions called tubercle. 
Stage two there may be no symptom. However, bacillus expands the body and settles in skin, joints, bones, kidneys, intestine, stomach and cerebral cortex. At this stage, if treatment has not been initiated, resistance of body will diminish. 

Stage three, tuberculosis bacillus expands via blood or lymphatic ducts. The patient has fatigue, productive cough, high temperature at nights, loss of appetite and night sweating. If it is not treated at this stage, other lung may be affected. Treatment should be carried on for 4 to 9 months. The first condition of treatment is the fresh and open air, abundant of food and a life without sadness.

Cardiac Failure 
It occurs in the form that right, left or both ventricles of the heart cannot empty the blood in it regularly at every beat. 3 types of cardiac failure are seen;

Left cardiac failure: The patient has dypsnea and dry couch. He has difficulty in breathing at nights. Tachycardia, syncope and sweating are observed. It is called as cardiac asthma. The reason is the disease or aortic valve or mitral valves or coronary disease. 

Right cardiac failure: foot and ankles of the patient swell. A pit is observed there if pressed by fingers. Hand, foot and face bruising, indigestion and loss of appetite occur. The reason is the mitral valve disease, chronic bronchitis or congenital cardiac disease. 
Congestive cardiac failure : It is seen when right and left cardiac failure is in question. The reason of it is the aortic or mitral valve disease, chronic bronchitis or lung diseases, rheumatism and thyroid diseases. The patient should not smoke, consume too much salt and ignore sleeping. Moreover, while resting, he should not lie down continuously, get angry and sad.