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ADRENAL (SUPRA RENAL GLANDS) DISEASES


Adrenal glands are the organs in the form of triangular prism form located over kidneys. These are endocrine glands located very closely to main veins on rear wall of abdomen called "Retroperitoneum" (aorta, vena cava inferior and renal artery-vein). They weigh 3-6 gr. These glands have outer layer called "cortex" and inner layer called medulla".  The most important hormones secreted in our body are secreted from these glands. Cortical and aldosterone are secreted on cortex layer and epinephrine and norepinephrine hormones are secrete in medulla layer. Adrenal glands also secrete gender hormones.

Complaints occurred in adrenal gland-oriented diseases varies according to the hormones secreted.  Blood level of hormones, measurement of urine metabolites or their discarded quantities and some biochemical measurements make diagnosis easier. 
There is no place for direct graphy in monitoring adrenal glands. Precision of ultrasonography sensitivity is up to 70%. It is not possible to evaluate precisely these structures with ultrasonography since it is close the rear wall of abdomen. Techniques with front high precision are computerized tomography and magnetic resonance monitoring.

Scintigraphy in some pathologies with adrenal glands origin has benefits in the diagnosis and follow-up processes. 
Fine needle biopsy is not applied for diagnosis in masses with adrenal gland origin. Only indication is phenomenon considered to have spread to adrenal gland by other organ cancers. 

Frequently encountered adrenal gland diseases

 • Primary adrenocortical deficiency (Addison's disease)
 • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
 • Adrenal incidentaloma
 • Adrenal Cushing's syndrome
 • Primary hyperaldosteronism
 • Pheochromocytoma
 • Adrenocortical carcinoma